Saturday, July 25, 2009

The Media in The American Occupation in the Philippines

West Visayas State University
La Paz, Iloilo City


(JRN 202)



I. Newspapers

Thomas Gowan- established the first English language daily in the Philippines in 1898.
Manila Times- the 1st English language daily in the Philippines.
Alejandro Roces Sr.-1st newspaper chain owner in the Phil. He bought the Manila Times in 1927.
Manila Bulletin- the oldest existing newspaper in the Philippines.
Carson Taylor- Founded the Manila bulletin in 1912 and included news of general interest.
Hans Menzi- bought the manila Bulletin in 1957.
Philippines Herald- the 1st pro-Filipino newspaper that was published in 1920.
Carlos P. Romulo- one of the main editors f Philippines Herald.

 II. Movies

- 3 periods of the Filipino film history: Period of Silent Pictures (1897-1929), Talking Pictures Period (1929-1970) and Period of the New Cinema (1971-present)
-3 stages of the 1st Period: Dominance of Documentary Film, Rise of Feature Film and Establishment of Filipino Film Companies.
Documentary Film- began on January 1, 1897.
Rise of Feature Film- started in 1912.
Jose and Jesus Nepomuceno- Founded the Malayan movies.
-3 stages of the 2nd period: Rise of the big Commercial Film Companies, Achievement of Technological Expertise and Commercialization of Filipino Film.
George P. Musser- produced the first Filipino talking picture “Aswang”.
Rise of the star system- rise of the genre movies.
Decades of the 50’s- Golden age of Filipino film.
Lino Brocka- (February, 1983) – organized the first free-the-artist, free-the-media rally.

III. Radio

Henry Hermann- an American, he set up the first Philippine radio station.
J. Amado Araneta- bought KZRM and KZEG from their American owners.
KZND- a government station.
1942- radio stations were closed, except for KZRH, which used by Japanese for broadcast.
1947- Pass another act stipulating that stations change their first call letters from “K” to “D”.
DZ (Luzon-based radio stations), DY (Visayas-based radio stations), DX- (Mindanao-based radio stations).

IV. Newspaper Chains

Joaquin “Chino” & Ramon- inherited and expanded his Mass Media Empire.
TVT (1916) - Taliba-Vanguardia-Tribune. Taliba- Tagalog daily, La Vanguardia- a Spanish daily.
Romulo- pirated from the Herald, first editor of tribune.
Philippine Magazine- 1st publication to be called a magazine. 
Chain Magazines- Started by Ramon Roces.  
Philippine free Press (1907) - by Robert McCullough Dick (1908), built its reputation on its fearless crusades against government corruption and it became a staunch Nationalist.
World War II- the Philippine media was closed.
Liwayway- only pre-war publications allowed publishing during the Japanese occupation (1942-1945).

V. Advertising

“Annuncios”(Public Announcements) - posted by merchants to announce goods for sale.
Frank J. Herrier- “Napoleon of Philippine Advertising”.
Manuel Buenaventura- first Filipino to handle advertising accounts.
Edmund Bullis (1921) - set up and managed the Philippine Publicity Service, Inc.,
Jean Bisson- introduced the use of illustrations in advertisements. 
Antonio Lagos- had won over an American competition.
Pedro E. Teodoro- “dean of Philippine Advertising Practitioners”.
San Miguel Corporations (1896) - the first to use slogans in their advertisements.
1930s- Started the use of radio as an advertising medium.
Commercial advertising Agency (1945)-founded by Gene Hubilia.
1950s- Advertising for television started.
1960s- Nationalism took over the advertising field.
Martial Law- ushered an era of uncertainty and 5000 business firms closed down.
Marcos’ fall- transformed the era of pessimism and uncertainty to optimism.